Cemented Carbide Materials: Grades, Properties And Applications

Cemented carbide is an alloy material made of refractory metal carbide and metal binder by powder metallurgy.

It has a series of excellent properties such as high hardness, wear resistance, good strength and toughness, heat resistance and corrosion resistance, so it is widely used as tool material.

(1) Brand and application of cemented carbide materials in China

See table 2-16 and table 2-17 for the performance profile of domestic cemented carbide brands.

Table 2-16 performance introduction of new brand alloy independently developed by Mudanjiang tool factory

Brand

Physical and mechanical properties

Equivalent to ISO classification number

Characteristics and recommended scope of use

Density / (g / cm2)

Bending strength not less than / (n / mm2)

Hardness not less than (HRA)

YT20

10.2~10.7

1150

91.5

P10

It has good thermal hardness and high wear resistance.

 It is suitable for rough turning, semi finishing turning and finishing turning of carbon steel and alloy steel during continuous cutting. Its service life is more than 30% ~ 50% higher than that of YT15.

SM20

10.4~10.9

1200

91.0

P20

It has good thermal hardness and high wear resistance.

 It is suitable for rough turning and semi fine turning of carbon steel and alloy steel. Its service life is more than 30% ~ 50% higher than that of YT14.

SM25

11.3~11.7

1350

91.0

P25/M20

It has good thermal hardness, good thermal vibration resistance and high wear resistance.

It is suitable for medium and high-speed semi finish milling of all kinds of steel and has a high service life.

S30

12.2~13.0

1400

90.0

P30

It has good impact resistance and is suitable for rough turning of carbon steel and steel castings.

Compared with YT5 alloy, its service life can be increased by more than 50%.

P25

12.3~12.7

1600

90.5

P30/M30

It has good thermal hardness, good impact and thermal vibration resistance and high wear resistance.

It is suitable for rough milling and semi finish milling of all kinds of steel.

P35

12.7~13.1

1700

90.0

P35

Good impact resistance and thermal vibration resistance.

It is applicable to the rough machining of all kinds of steel forgings and casting blanks, especially the rough turning effect of hydrogenation reactor cylinder section forgings.

It is also suitable for rough machining of nuclear power large forgings.

P40

12.5~13.1

1700

89.0

P40/M40

It has good impact resistance and thermal vibration resistance.

It is suitable for low-speed intermittent rough turning of all kinds of cast steel and forged steel with good effect.

ST5015

6.8~7.3

1150

91.5

P05~P15

It is a new type of cermet alloy with good thermal hardness and wear resistance.

It is suitable for high-speed finish milling and turning of carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless steel.

ST5030

73~7.7

1200

91.5

P05~P20

It belongs to a new type of cermet alloy, which has certain impact resistance, good thermal hardness and wear resistance. It is suitable for high-speed fine milling and fine turning of carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless steel.

ST6030

9.0~9.2

2000

91.0

P20~P30

New metal ceramic alloy.

Good impact resistance, good thermal hardness and wear resistance.

It is suitable for rough milling and rough turning of carbon steel and alloy steel.

HM100

13.8~14.2

1200

93.0

M05/K05

It has good thermal hardness and high wear resistance.

 It is suitable for finishing turning and milling of nodular cast iron, chilled alloy cast iron and quenched steel.

M150

12.6~13.3

1200

92.0

M15/P10

It has good thermal hardness and high wear resistance.

It is suitable for finishing and semi finishing of alloy steel and high-strength steel.

 It can also be rough machined under the condition of low impact force.

M200

12.2~12.8

1200

92.5

M05/P05

It has good thermal hardness and high wear resistance.

It is suitable for rough machining and semi finish machining of alloy steel, high-strength steel and steel with quenching hardness not greater than 50HRC.

SM20N

11.8~12.3

1500

92.0

M10~M20

Excellent adhesion resistance and excellent resistance to crater wear.

It is especially suitable for finishing of stainless steel, as well as finishing and semi finishing of alloy steel and carbon steel.

SM25N

11.9~12.5

1600

91.5

M20/P20/S15

Good adhesion resistance and good anti crescent wear ability.

It is suitable for finishing and semi finishing of stainless steel, alloy steel and carbon steel.

It is also suitable for rough turning and fine turning of nickel base superalloy.

SM30N

12.1~12.7

1700

91.0

M30/P30/S20

It has good adhesion resistance, good thermal hardness and wear resistance.

It is especially suitable for rough machining and semi finishing of all kinds of stainless steel, with excellent service life.

It is also suitable for rough turning and fine turning of nickel base superalloy.

SM35N

12.2~12.8

1800

90.5

M30/P30

Good adhesion resistance, especially suitable for rough machining of all kinds of stainless steel, with excellent service life.

SM35

12.1~12.7

1900

90.0

P35/M35

It has good adhesion resistance, impact resistance and thermal vibration resistance.

It is suitable for medium and low speed rough milling and intermittent turning of carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless steel.

HM05

14.8~15.2

1200

92.0

K05

It has high wear resistance and is suitable for finishing of cast iron, non-ferrous metals and their alloys, especially for drilling of automotive asbestos brake pads.

The effect is better than K01.

HM15

14.6~15.0

1500

91.5

K15

It has good wear resistance and is suitable for turning and milling of cast iron, nodular cast iron, chilled alloy cast iron, non-ferrous metals and their alloys.

HM20

14.5~14.8

1700

91.5

K20

Good toughness and wear resistance.

It is suitable for rough machining of nonferrous metals and cast iron.

HM25

14.6~14.9

1800

89.5

K25

It has good impact resistance and vibration resistance. It is suitable for rough machining of cast iron, non-ferrous metals and their alloys and non-metallic materials.

Its service life is higher than that of K30 products.

HM30

14.5~14.9

1800

90.0

K30

It has good impact resistance and vibration resistance. It is suitable for rough machining of cast iron, nodular cast iron, non-ferrous metals and their alloys and non-metallic materials.

It has good service life.

HM35

14.5~14.9

1800

89.5

K35

Good impact resistance and thermal vibration resistance.

Suitable for rough machining of cast iron.

HM40

14.4~14.7

2000

90.0

K40/M40

Good toughness and thermal vibration resistance.

It is suitable for rough turning of cast iron and austenitic stainless steel castings.

Table 2-17 alloy grades and properties of Xiamen Jinlu

Brand

Physical and mechanical properties

Equivalent to ISO classification number

Characteristics and scope of use

Density / (g / cm2)

Flexural strength / (n / mm2)

Hardness (HRA)

GU1OUF

14.8

3800

94

K05-K10

 

GUISUF

14.52

3800

93.5

K10-K20

Recommended for making drill bits, suitable for processing non alloy steel, stainless steel, gray cast iron and nodular cast iron.

GU25UF

14.1

4200

92.5

K20-K40

It is recommended to manufacture end mills, reamers and drill bits of various specifications. It has strong ability in the field of high-speed and light cutting. It is suitable for processing hardened steel, aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, etc.

GU20F

14.3

3800

92.3

K20-K40

It is recommended to manufacture drill bits, end mills and reamers. It is suitable for the processing of ordinary die steel, gray cast iron, stainless steel, nickel base alloy and titanium alloy.

GU10

14.9

2700

93

K10-K30

It is used for manufacturing end milling cutter and drill bit. It is suitable for processing low alloy steel, gray cast iron, aluminum base alloy and copper alloy.

GU20

14.4

3500

91.7

K20-K40

It is used to manufacture general machining drill bits, end mills and reamers. It is suitable for milling and hole machining of ordinary die steel, gray cast iron, austenitic stainless steel and heat-resistant alloy.

GK05A

14.95

2450

92.5

K15

It is recommended to manufacture various specifications of drill bits, end mills, rotary files, etc. it is suitable for non-ferrous metal processing, such as molybdenum, copper and graphite products (coating required).

GK20

14.95

2700

91.0

K20

 

(2) Grades and applications of cemented carbide materials abroad

The types and brands of processing materials are shown in table 2-18.

Table 2-18 definition and introduction of material brand

Types of processing materialsProcessing steel partsProcessing stainless steelProcessing cast ironProcessing nonferrous metalsProcessing heat resistant alloyProcessing high hardness materials
 Hardness
toughness 
P01
P05
P10
P20
P30
P40
M10
M20
M30
M40
K01
K10
K20
K30
N01
N10
N20
N30
S01
S10
S20
S30
H01
H10
H20
H30

The comparison of cemented carbide product brands of foreign manufacturers is shown in Appendix A.

Appendix A comparison of hard product brands of foreign manufacturers

ISO seco  Sandvik croman Kent metal Iska Mitsubishi sumitomo  Tungaloy  Walter Widia  ValeniteStram Kyocera Teguk Senra Tianshi Mu Li Chloe Dai Jie Japanese special ceramics Ingersoll Hannida 
hardnesstoughnessP01                    
P10  P10IC70 STIOPTH10 TNI5U   P10 wS10 SRT  TN15U
P20S10MSMA H1OFK125M TTMIC70UTi20TST20EKS20 TNI5U   P20 EX35 SRT SR20KM1P40TN15U
P30S25MSM30 H1OFGK K600 TTRIC28 IC54UTi20TA30 A30NKS15F UX30    PW30P30S40TEX40 DX30 SR30 P40 
P40S60M G13IC28 IC54 ST40E      P40S40TEX45 SR30KM3  
M01                    
M10890H10AK313IC20 U10E EH510TH10  TN15U WU10HT   M10 WA10B UMNKM1 TN15UWU10HT
M20HX883H13AK68 KMF K125M TTMIC20UTi20TU2 EH520TH10 TN15U WU1OHT S3X7 M20CTW7120 H210TEX35U20DX25 UMS IN30MTN15UWU10HT
M30 H1OF SM30GK600 TTRIC28UTi20TA30A30NUX30       EX45 UMS IN30M 
M40  G13IC28        M40S40T  UM40 IN30M 
K01  K605 HTiOSTH2H1KSO5F TN15UWU1OHT   UF1 WHO1WHO5 KG03  TN15UWU10HT
K10890H10K313 K110M THM THM-UIC20 ICO9THTi10H1 EH10EH510TH10WK1WK10TN15UWU1OHT GH2KW10K10H210T H216T H1OTWH10G10KG10 KT9 CR1KM1INO5STN15UWU10HT
K20890HX 883HI3A H1OFK715 KMF K600IC20 ICO9TUTi20TG10E EH20 EH520KS15F KS20WK1 WK10TN15U WU1OHT  KW10 GW25K20CTW7120 H210T H216T H1OTWH20 KT9 CR1 KG20  FB15 INO5S IN1OK IN15K IN30MTN15UWU10HT
  K30883H13A H10FTHRIC28UTi20TG10E WK40 WMG40   GW25K30   KG30 IN10K IN15K IN30M 
  K40  G13                IN30M 
  NO1 H10K605IC20 H1KSO5F    KW10        
  N10890HX 883H10H1OFK313K110MTHMTHM-UIC20IC28HTi10H1TH10KSO5F TNI5UWU10HT GH1GW15K10H210T H216T HIOTWH10 KT9CR1KM1INO5S INIOKTN15UWU10HT
  N20890 HX KK883H1OF H13AK715 KMF K600IC20 IC28  KS15F TN15UWU1OHT   K20CTW7120H210T H216T H1OTWH20 KT9CR1KM1IN10K IN15KTN15UWU10HT
  N30883H25 G13THR               IN15K IN30M 
  S01   IC20RT9005               
  S10890883H10H1OAK10K313THMIC20RT9005RT9010EH510KSO5FTH1OWKITNI5UWUlOHTVPUS10 KW10K10H210TH216TH1OTWH10 KG10KM1IN15K IN30MTN15UWU10HT
  S20890883H25H1OFH13AK715KMFIC20IC28RT9010TF15EH520KS15FKS20WKIWMG40TN15UWU1OHT  GW25K20CTW7120H210TH10TWH20 KG20KM1IN1OK IN15KTN15UWU10HT
  S30883  G13 K600THR TF15  WMG40         IIN30M 
  S40                    
  H01   IC20            KG03   
  H10 H13A IC20  TH1O     K10   FZ05 IN1OK 
  H20890 HX883               FZ15 INI5K 

(3) Typical product introduction

1. Properties and applications of Walter cemented carbide materials

Cemented carbide is mainly composed of tungsten carbide (WC) as hard material and cobalt (Co) as binder.

In most cases, the cobalt content is between 6% and 12%.

The general rule is: the higher the cobalt content, the higher the toughness, but the lower the wear resistance, and vice versa.

Another decisive parameter of cemented carbide is grain size.

The finer the grain, the greater the hardness.

As shown in table 2-19, the composition and properties of Walter cemented carbide materials.

Table 2-19 composition and properties of Walter cemented carbide

 performanceWc,(%)Grain sizeHardness(HV)
K10The wear resistance of the matrix is very good;Used in welding hole machining tool manufacturer.6common1650
K20FThe wear resistance of the matrix is very good, and the grains are finer;It is applied to cast iron chip materials.6~7slender1650~1800
K30FUltra fine grain matrix, high toughness and wear resistance;It is generally applicable to various materials.10Very slender1550

2. Shangao cemented carbide cutter

Fig. 2-11 shows the physical and mechanical properties of various main tool materials.

It can be seen that the ideal cutting tool material should have both toughness and wear resistance.

physical and mechanical properties of various tool materials

Fig. 2-11 physical and mechanical properties of various tool materials

For different processed materials, cemented carbide materials are also subdivided into targeted brands.

These brands have different physical and mechanical properties and can adapt to the cutting applications of different processed materials.

Fig. 2-12 shows typical SEM photos of cemented carbide + coating.

typical SEM photos of cemented carbide + coating

Fig. 2-12 typical SEM photos of cemented carbide + coating

The wear resistance, thermal conductivity and thermal hardness of cemented carbide mainly depend on the type of cemented carbide matrix and coating.

Among them, WC particle size, cobalt content and phase γ content are very important.

It affects the toughness, wear resistance, thermal hardness and chemical affinity of cemented carbide tools.

These mechanical and chemical properties are closely related to the cutting process.

The specific effects can be explained from fig. 2-13.

relationship between tool performance indexes

Fig. 2-13 relationship between tool performance indexes

The influence of cobalt content and WC content of cemented carbide on the wear resistance and toughness of the matrix can be explained by fig. 2-14.

Generally speaking, the WC content is between 60% and 95%, while the Co content is between 5% and 40%.

effect of cobalt and WC content on wear resistance of cemented carbide

Fig. 2-14 effect of cobalt and WC content on wear resistance of cemented carbide

The influence of cemented carbide grain size on cemented carbide matrix can be seen from fig. 2-15.

Take WC-6% Co cemented carbide as an example.

effect of cemented carbide grain size on matrix

Fig. 2-15 effect of cemented carbide grain size on matrix

The gradient cemented carbide developed by shangao tool can effectively prevent crack propagation in the machining process.

This matrix can be used to process high-strength and difficult to process materials, effectively prevent edge cracking, and improve tool life and processing safety, as shown in Fig. 2-16.

gradient cemented carbide

Fig. 2-16 gradient cemented carbide

a) Due to the small crack formed by tensile stress, the matrix toughness is low, which makes the crack further develop

b) High cobalt content under the surface layer terminates the crack

The following describes the performance of several shangao cemented carbide tools:

1)883:

The relatively high hardness and uncoated fine particle material grade are suitable for rough machining applications of titanium alloys and also for superalloys.

2)890:

High hardness uncoated fine particle material grade with good toughness, for superalloys and titanium alloys, and can also be used for other materials.

3)HX:

The general uncoated material grade is for processing cast iron and hardened steel, and can also be used for non-ferrous materials.

4)KX:

Optimize the grade of ultra-fine particles and process aluminum alloy and other non-ferrous metal materials.

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