Grade Of High Speed Steel And Its Application

Compared with cemented carbide, high speed steel has low hardness and good toughness.

It is suitable for making broach and hob.

High speed steel cutting tools are widely used in cutting.

Today, let’s learn about their brand and application.

(1) Composition and properties of domestic high speed steel cutting tools

The composition, performance and application scope of domestic high-speed steel tool materials are shown in table 2-6, and the brand and comparison of domestic and foreign high-speed steel tools are shown in table 2-7.

Table 2-6 classification, grade, performance and application of domestic high speed steel

IDCategorySteel gradeWC(%)Hardness (HRC)Flexural strength / GPAImpact toughness / (kJ / m2)Hardness at 600 ℃ (HRC)Service performanceScope of application
1General high speed steelW18Cr4V(W18)0.70~0.8063-663.0~3.40.2~0.348.5W-series universal high-speed steel has high hardness, thermal hardness and high-temperature hardness. It has a wide fire range, but it is not easy to overheat and easy to grind (it can be grinded with ordinary grinding wheel). The disadvantage is low thermoplastic and poor toughness. The steel used to be the largest, but its use decreased after the 1970s.It is mainly used to make turning tools, drill bits, milling cutters, reamers and other tools for high-speed cutting. It is also used as die, tap, reamer, wire drawing die, saw blade, etc., but it is not suitable to make tools by hot forming method.
2General high speed steelW6Mo5Cr4V2(M2)0.80~0.9063-663.5~4.00.3~0.447~48W-Mo general-purpose high-speed steel is the most widely used high-speed steel grade (i.e. m2) in various countries. It has high hardness, thermal hardness and high-temperature hardness, good thermoplastic, excellent strength and toughness; The disadvantage is that the steel is sensitive to overheating and decarburization, and the heat resistance is slightly lower than W18Cr4VIt is used to make cutting tools and general cutting tools that require good wear resistance and toughness and bear large impact force, such as gear shaper cutter, bevel gear planer, milling cutter, turning tool, tap, drill bit, etc
3General high speed steelW14Cr4VMnXt0.85~0.9564-66~4.0~0.3150.5Processing general steel and cast iron, can manufacture all kinds of cutting toolsEquivalent to W18Cr4V, but improved thermoplastic
4General high speed steelW9Mo3Cr4V0.77~0.8763~664.0-4.50.35-0.4The new W-Mo general-purpose high-speed steel developed in China has the same service properties as W18Cr4V (T1) and W6Mo5Cr4V2 (M2), good heat resistance, thermoplastic and heat treatment properties, better comprehensive process properties than T1 and M2 and lower costGeneral high speed steel
5High performance high speed steel – high carbon and high vanadiumW12Cr4V4Mo(EV4)1.20~1.4066-67~3.2~0.152It is used to manufacture cutting tools with high wear resistanceHigh performance high speed steel – high carbon and high vanadium
6High performance high speed steel high carbon and high vanadiumW6Mo5Cr4V3(M3)1.00-1.1065-67~3.2~0.2551.7High carbon and high vanadium high-speed steel has higher wear resistance than W6Mo5Cr4V2 due to its high vanadium content, low strength and toughness and high decarburization sensitivity, so it has high hardness and wear resistance and higher heat resistance than general-purpose high-speed steel. Grinding with single crystal corundum sandIt is used to make tools and general tools requiring special wear resistance, such as broach, hob, thread comb, turning tool, planer, tap, drill bit, etc. Due to the poor grindability of steel, making complex cutting tools requires special grinding wheels
7High performance high speed steel – high carbon and high vanadiumW9Cr4V51.40~1.5063~66~3.2~0.2551It is used to manufacture cutting tools with high wear resistanceDue to the high vanadium content, the hardness and wear resistance are high, but the strength and toughness are low, and the heat resistance is higher than that of general-purpose high-speed steel. The grindability is poor, so it needs to be grinded with single crystal corundum sand
8High performance high speed steel containing cobaltW6Mo5Cr4V2C(M36)0.80~0.9066~68~3.0~0.354High carbon W-Mo general-purpose high-speed steel, due to the increase of carbon content, the surface hardness after quenching is also improved, and the high-temperature hardness, wear resistance and heat resistance are higher than W6Mo5Cr4V2, but the strength and toughness are reduced and should not be impactedHigh performance high speed steel containing cobalt
9High performance high speed steel – high carbon, high vanadium and cobaltW12Cr4V5Co5(T15)1.50~1.6066~68~3.0~0.2554W series high vanadium cobalt high speed steel has high hardness, especially ultra-high wear resistance, but poor grindability, so it needs to be grinded with single crystal corundum grinding wheel. It combines the advantages of good wear resistance of vanadium containing steel and high heat resistance of cobalt containing steelHigh performance high speed steel – high carbon, high vanadium and cobalt
10High performance high speed steel – high carbon, high vanadium and cobaltW9Cr4V5Co31.40~1.50It is used to process high-temperature alloy, stainless steel, etc., but it is not suitable to manufacture complex cutting tools because it is difficult to grindHigh performance high speed steel – high carbon, high vanadium and cobalt
11High performance high speed steel – cobalt containing superhard typeW2Mo9Cr4VCo8(M41)1.05~1.1567~692.7~3.80.2~0.355W-Mo series high carbon cobalt containing superhard steel, equivalent to M42 in the United States, is a kind of superhard high-speed steel with the largest consumption. It has high thermal hardness and high-temperature hardness, easy grinding, but poor toughness. It can be said that it has good comprehensive performance, but the price is expensiveIt is used to make all kinds of complex high-precision tools, such as precision broach, forming milling cutter, special turning tool, drill bit and all kinds of high hardness tools. It can be used to cut difficult machining materials such as titanium alloy, superalloy, ultra-high strength steel and so on
12High performance high speed steel – cobalt containing superhard typeW7Mo4Cr4V2Co5(M41)1.05~1.1567~692.5~3.00.2~0.354It is used to process difficult to process materials such as high-strength steel, superalloy and titanium alloy, and can manufacture all kinds of cutting toolsThe grindability is inferior to w2mo9cr4vco8
13High performance high speed steel – cobalt containing superhard typeW9Mo3Cr4V3Co101.20~1.3066~69~2.40.2~0.354It is used to process difficult to process materials such as high-strength steel, superalloy and titanium alloy, and can manufacture all kinds of cutting toolsIt has the same properties as w12mo9cr4vco8, but it has low strength and toughness and poor grindability
14High performance high speed steel – cobalt containing superhard typeW12Cr4V3Mo3Co5Si1.20~1.3567~692.43.30.1~0.254It is used to process difficult to process materials such as high-strength steel, superalloy and titanium alloy, and can manufacture all kinds of cutting toolsIt is a low cobalt superhard high speed steel with similar properties and poor grindability to high cobalt high speed steel
15High performance high speed steel – cobalt free superhard typeW6Mo5Cr4V2A1(M2-A1)1.05~1.2067~692.9~3.90.2-0.355It can replace high cobalt high speed steel to process difficult machining materialsThe performance is similar to that of w2mo9cr4vco8, but the grindability is slightly poor and the overheating sensitivity is slightly higher. cheapness
16Cobalt free superhard steelW6Mo5Cr4V5SiNbA11.55~1.6566~683.6~3.90.2~0.351It can replace high cobalt high speed steel to process difficult machining materialsHigh wear resistance, high heat resistance and poor grindability
17High performance high speed steel – cobalt free superhard typeW10Mo4Cr4V3Al1.30~1.4567~693.1~3.50.2~0.354It can replace high cobalt high speed steel to process difficult machining materialsHigh wear resistance, high heat resistance and poor grindability

Table 2-7 comparison of domestic and foreign high speed steel grades

ChinaJapanthe republic of koreaU.S.AUKGermanyFranceInternational Organization for Standardization
GBJISKSAISISAEBS BS/ENDINDIN/ENNF NF/ENISO
W18Cr4WSKH2SKH2TI   HS18-0-1
W18Cr4VCo5SKH3SKH3T4    
 SKH4SKH4T5    
W12Cr4V5Co5SKH10SKH10T15BM2S6/5/2Z85WDCV 
W6Mo5Cr4V2SKH51SKH51M2   HS6-5-2
W6Mo5Cr4V3SKH52SKH52M3-1   HS6-6-2
CW6Mo5Cr4V3SKH53SKH53M3-2   HS6-5-3
 SKH54SKH54M4BM35S6/5/2/56-5-2-5HS6-5-4
W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5SKH55SKH55M35   HS6-5-2-5
W6Mo5Cr4V2Co8SKH56SKH56M36    
 SKH57SKH57  S2/9/2 HS10-4-3-10
W2Mo9Cr4V2SKH58SKH58M7   HS2-9-2
 SKH59SKH59M42   HS2-9-1-8
        

The grades and applications of high-speed steel of HEC are shown in table 2-8, table 2-9 and table 2-10.

Table 2-8 grade and application of HEC high speed steel

Ordinary high speed steel

Hezhi steel

Chemical composition (mass fraction,%)

C

W

Mo

Cr

V

Co

other

HYM2

0.86

6.00

4.80

4.00

1.85

HYM2E

0.90

6.20

4.80

4.00

1.90

HYW9

0.83

8.85

3.00

4.10

1.45

HYW6A

0.86

6.00

3.00

4.20

1.80

HYW18

0.78

18.00

<030

4.10

1.10

HYM7

1.00

1.90

8.70

3.85

2.00

Hezhi steel

Similar steel grade

GB

ISO

ASTM

JIS

BOHLER

ERASTEEL

HYM2

W6Mo5Cr4V2

HS6-5-2

M2

SKH51

s600

EM2

HYM2E

CW6Mo5Cr4V2

HS6-5-2C

M2 (high C)

S600

EM2

HYW9

W9Mo3Cr4V

HYW6A

HYW18

W18Cr4V

HS18-0-1

TI

SKH2

5200

ETI

HYM7

W2Mo9Cr4V2

HS2-9-2

M7

SKH5S

S400

EM7

Hezhi steel

Quenching and tempering hardness (HBW)

Annealing hardness (HBW)

application

HYM2

>255

64

It is suitable for manufacturing various types of general tools, as well as large-scale and thermoplastic forming tools

HYM2E

≥255

<64

Fried dough twist drill, tap, milling cutter, reamer, broach

HYW9

≥255

<64

It is widely used. It is not only suitable for manufacturing various types of general tools, but also for manufacturing large-scale and thermoplastic forming tools

HYW6A

≥255

64

It can replace w9 to produce taper shank drills, taps, Broaches and other cutting tools. It can also produce molds and sliding blades of air conditioning compressors with high wear resistance

HYW18

≥255

<63

It is widely used for various cutting tools, such as turning tool, planer, milling cutter, broach, reamer, drill bit, gear shaper cutter, tap, die, etc. it can also be used to make wear-resistant parts at high temperature, such as high-temperature bearing, high-temperature spring, etc. sometimes it is also used to make cold working die

Table 2-9 grade and application of high performance high speed steel in Hecheng smelter

High performance high speed steel

Heye steel grade

Chemical composition (mass fraction,%)

C

Mo

Cr

V

Co

other

HYM42

1.1

1.55

93

3.85

1.15

8

HYM35

0.93

6.2

4.85

4.1

1.9

4.8

HYT42

1.29

9.5

3.5

4

3.2

9.8

HYT15

1.55

12.4

≤1.0

4.25

4.9

4.8

HYC8

1.05

5

6

4

1.6

7.8

HYM2A1

1.1

6.1

4.8

4.1

1.85

A1:1.00

HYM3-1

1.2

6.2

4.9

4

2.9

HYM3-2

1.3

6.2

4.9

4

2.9

HYM4

1.3

5.7

4.7

4.2

4

Heye steel grade

Similar steel grade

GB

ISO

ASTM

JIS

BOHLER

ERASTEEL

HYM42

W2Mo9Cr4VCo8

HS2-9-1-8

M42

SKH59

S500

EM42

HYM35

W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5

HS6-5-2-5

M35

SKH55

S705

EM35

HYT42

W10Mo4Cr4V3Co10

HS10-4-3-10

SKH57

S700

WKE42

HYT15

W12Cr4V5Co5

HS12-1-5-5

T15

SKH10

HYC8

HS5-6-2-8

C8

HYM2A1

W6Mo5Cr4V2Al

S620

HYM3-1

W6Mo5Cr4V3

HS6-5-3

M3(Class1)

SKH52

EM3:1

HYM3-2

CW6Mo5Cr4V3

HS6-5-3C

M3(Class2)

SKH53

S607

EM3:2

HYM4

W6Mo5Cr4V4

HS6-5-4

M4

SKH54

Hezhi steel

Tempering hardness (HRC)

Annealing hardness (HBW)

application

Hezhi steel

Tempering hardness (HRC)

Annealing hardness (HBW)

application

HYM42

≥66

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing all kinds of high-precision and complex cutting tools and all kinds of cutting tools for difficult to process materials, such as milling cutter, hob, gear shaper cutter, broach, tap and special drill bit

HYM42

≥66

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing all kinds of high-precision and complex cutting tools and all kinds of cutting tools for difficult to process materials, such as milling cutter, hob, gear shaper cutter, broach, tap and special drill bit

HYM35

≥64

≤269

It is suitable for all kinds of cutting tools, such as drill bit, tap, milling cutter, broach and hob

HYM35

≥64

≤269

It is suitable for all kinds of cutting tools, such as drill bit, tap, milling cutter, broach and hob

HYT42

≥66

≤285

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as end mills, hobs, broaches, turning tools and planers for heavy and continuous cutting

HYT42

≥66

≤285

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as end mills, hobs, broaches, turning tools and planers for heavy and continuous cutting

HYT15

≥65

≤277

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as drilling tools, thread tools, turning tools, milling tools, forming tools, hobs and scraper blades. It is used to process medium and high strength steel, cold rolled steel, cast alloy steel, low alloy super strength and other difficult to process materials

HYT15

≥65

≤277

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as drilling tools, thread tools, turning tools, milling tools, forming tools, hobs and scraper blades. It is used to process medium and high strength steel, cold rolled steel, cast alloy steel, low alloy super strength and other difficult to process materials

HYC8

≥63

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing all kinds of high-precision and complex cutting tools and all kinds of cutting tools for machining difficult materials, such as milling cutter, hob, gear shaper cutter, broach, tap and special drill bit

HYC8

≥63

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing all kinds of high-precision and complex cutting tools and all kinds of cutting tools for machining difficult materials, such as milling cutter, hob, gear shaper cutter, broach, tap and special drill bit

HYM2A1

≥65

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as end mills, hobs, broaches, turning tools and planers for heavy and continuous cutting. The dry hym2a1 tool has excellent cutting performance and low price. It has become an excellent material to replace M42 in manufacturing tools with high thermal hardness requirements in China

HYM2A1

≥65

≤269

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools such as end mills, hobs, broaches, turning tools and planers for heavy and continuous cutting. The dry hym2a1 tool has excellent cutting performance and low price. It has become an excellent material to replace M42 in manufacturing tools with high thermal hardness requirements in China

HYM3-1

≥65

<262

It is suitable for manufacturing small size cutting tools with high wear resistance and toughness

HYM3-1

≥65

<262

It is suitable for manufacturing small size cutting tools with high wear resistance and toughness

HYM3-2

≥65

≤262

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools with high wear resistance and toughness requirements, such as planer, tap, cutter, etc

HYM3-2

≥65

≤262

It is suitable for manufacturing cutting tools with high wear resistance and toughness requirements, such as planer, tap, cutter, etc

HYM4

≥65

≤269

It is generally used to manufacture various simple cutting tools, such as broach, turning tool, etc. it is suitable for machining medium and high strength steel, superalloy and other difficult cutting materials, and is not suitable for manufacturing high-precision complex cutting tools

HYM4

≥65

≤269

It is generally used to manufacture various simple cutting tools, such as broach, turning tool, etc. it is suitable for machining medium and high strength steel, superalloy and other difficult cutting materials, and is not suitable for manufacturing high-precision complex cutting tools

Table 2-10 grade and application of powder metallurgy high speed steel in Hecheng smelter

Powder metallurgy high speed steel

Heye steel grade

Chemical composition (mass fraction,%)

W

Mo

Cr

V

Co

other

AHPM3

13

62

5

4

3

AHPM4

1.35

55

4.7

42

4

AHPT15

1.55

12

≤10

4

4.9

5

AHPT15M

1.6

10

2.2

4.7

4.8

8

AHP30

13

6.5

4.9

4

29

83

Heye steel grade

Similar steel grade

GB

ISO

ASTM

JIS

BOHLER

ERASTEEL

AHPM3

W6Mo5Cr4V3

HS6-5-3C

M3(Class2)

SKH53

S790

ASP2023

AHPM4

W6Mo5Cr4V4

HS6-5-4

M4

SKH54

S690

EM4

AHPT15

W12Cr4V5Co5

T15

ASP2015

AHPT15M

S390

ASP2052

AHP30

W6Mo5Cr4V3Co8

HS6-5-3-8

S590

ASP2030

(2) Typical product introduction

1. New materials and new coating technology used by aoketai steel

(1)A C150P:

CVD coating (as shown in Fig. 2-5), which is the finishing material of steel parts and is suitable for semi finishing.

It adopts a new gradient cobalt rich matrix with superior wear resistance, realizing long service life and stability in continuous, light intermittent processing.

AC150p

Fig. 2-5 AC150p

(2)AC250P:

CVD coating (as shown in Fig. 2-6), medium processing and semi finishing materials of steel parts, strength and toughness of cobalt rich matrix, perfect combination of controllable MT Ti CN grain structure and smooth α-Al2O3, superior wear resistance and collapse resistance, the first choice for steel parts processing.

AC250p

Fig. 2-6 AC250p

(3)AC350P:

CVD coating (as shown in Fig. 2-7) is suitable for rough machining of steel parts.

The unique coating process improves the coating structure, high bonding strength and superior mechanical properties.

Special processes are used to treat the surface and edge coatings, giving the brand with super cutting edge strength and better wear resistance.

AC350P

Fig. 2-7 AC350P

2. Material grade and application of Walter high speed steel

Four groups of high-speed steel are used for Walter Titex tool, as shown in table 2-11, and the material and alloy composition of Walter high-speed steel are shown in table 2-12.

Table 2-11 four groups of high speed steel used for Walter Titex tool

HSSGeneral purpose high speed steel (fried dough twist drill, reamer, spot facer, partial reamer, center drill and step drill)
HSS-EHigh speed steel containing 5% cobalt is used to meet the higher cutting load, especially the higher thermal load (high-efficiency fried dough twist drill and partial reamer).
HSS-E Co8High speed steel containing 8% cobalt has the highest heat resistance, corresponding to American grade M 42 (non-standard tool).
HSS-PMPowder metallurgy high speed steel has very high alloy content.Advantages: high purity, uniform structure, strong wear resistance and good heat resistance (non-standard tool).

Table 2-12 material and alloy composition of Walter high speed steel

 

Material number

abbreviation

Old standard code

AISIASTM

AFNOR

B.S.

UNI

Mass fraction of alloy (%)

C

Cr

Mo

V

Co

HSS

13343

S6-5-2

DMo5

M2

BM2

HS6-5-2

0.82

4.0

65

5.0

2.0

HSS-E

1.3243

S6-5-2-5

EMo5Co5

M35

6.5.25

HS6-5-2-5

0.82

4.5

6.0

5.0

2.0

5.0

HSS-ECo8

13247

S2-10-1-8

M42

BM42

HS2-9-1-8

1.08

4.0

1.5

95

1.2

8.25

HSS-PM

Material order No. ASP

Surface treatment can improve the use efficiency of cutting tools.

The steam treatment of high-speed steel cutting tools is shown in table 2-13, and the nitriding treatment of high-speed steel cutting tools is shown in table 2-14.

Table 2-13 steam treatment of high speed steel cutting tools

WorkmanshipDry steam, Fe3O4 520-580 ℃
EffectAttached Fe3O4, oxide layer, about 0.003-0.010mm thick
Characteristic-Reduce the tendency of cold welding between materials-First, the surface hardness is improved and the wear resistance is improved-Improved corrosion resistance-FeO crystal makes the lubricant adhere better and improves the lubrication performance-Reduce grinding stress

Table 2-14 nitriding treatment of high speed steel cutting tools

WorkmanshipTreated in nitrogen, 520-570 ℃;
EffectIncrease the nitrogen content of the surface, sometimes including carbon content;
CharacteristicReduce the tendency of cold welding between materials and the generation of chip buildup;The hardness is improved, and thus the wear resistance is improved.

The PVD physical coating treatment technology is used on Walter Titex high-speed steel and cemented carbide tools, which is completed at the process temperature below 600 ℃, so it will not cause the change of basic materials.

Compared with the tool material itself, the hard material coating has higher hardness and stronger wear resistance, as shown in table 2-15.

Hard coating method table 15-2

Surface preparation / coatingMethod / coatingcharacteristicTool example
UncoatedNo processing  
Steam treatmentSteam treatmentHigh speed steel steam treatment 
Blade belt steam treatmentSteam treatmentSteam treatment of high speed steel blade belt 
TiNTin coatingUniversal coating 
TIPTin head coatingSpecial coating, best chip removal performance 
TFLTinal coatingHigh efficiency coating, wide application range 
TFTTinal top coatingHigh efficiency coating, especially small friction coefficient 
TFPTinal head coatingHigh efficiency coating, perfect chip removal performance 
TMLTinal micro bit coatingSpecial coating for small drill bits with very low friction coefficient 
XPLA1crn coatingHigh efficiency coating with the highest wear resistance 
DPLDouble coatingHigh efficiency coating with the highest wear resistance 
DPPHead double coatingHigh efficiency coating with the highest wear resistance 
AMLAITiN micro bit coatingSpecial coating for small drill bits with very low friction coefficient 
AMPAlTiN micro bit head coatingSpecial coating for small drill bits with very low friction coefficient 
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