Indexable Insert Drill: Characteristics And Selection

Indexable insert drill, also known as shallow hole drill or U drill.

It is an efficient drilling tool for machining holes less than 3 times the hole diameter.

In recent years, it has been widely used in various CNC machine tools, machining centers, turret lathes and other automatic equipment.

This kind of drill is usually equipped with two indexable blades asymmetrically to form an inner edge and an outer edge, which are respectively used to process the inside of the hole (including the center part) and the outside of the hole (including the hole wall).

As shown in Fig. 5-3, when the cutting hole diameter is large, multiple blades can be installed.

Fig. 5-3 indexable insert drill bit

(1) Features and selection

1. Product classification

Indexable blade drills can be classified according to blade shape, chip removal groove shape, structure and machining characteristics.

(1) According to the shape of the blade, it can be divided into quadrilateral, convex triangle, diamond, hexagon, etc.

(2) According to the commonly used tool body chip removal groove, it can be divided into straight groove and spiral groove bits.

(3) According to the form of drill shank, it can be divided into two forms: cylindrical shank and Morse taper shank drill.

(4) According to the structure, it can be divided into three types: integral drill bit, modular drill bit and separated drill bit.

2. Product features

(1) Suitable for high speed cutting.

When processing steel, the cutting speed VC is 80 ~ 120m/min; When the coated blade is used, the cutting speed vc is 150 ~ 300m/min, and the production efficiency is 7 ~ 12 times that of the standard fried dough twist drill.

(2) High processing quality.

The surface roughness value can reach Ra=3.2 ~ 6.3 μ m。

(3) The blade can be rotated to save auxiliary time.

(4) Good chip breaking.

The chip breaking table is used for chip breaking, with good chip removal performance.

(5) The internal cooling structure is adopted in the drill handle, so the service life of the drill blade is higher.

(6) It can not only drill holes, but also be used for boring and spot facer. In some cases, it can also be used as a turning tool.

3. Cutting parameters

The cutting amount of the indexable blade bit shall be determined according to the type and hardness of the material to be processed.

See Table 5-1 for the common cutting amount and table 5-2 for the measures to process the difficult chip breaking material.

Table 5-1 recommended cutting parameters for indexable bit

Table 5-2 measures for processing difficult chip breaking materials with indexable bit

Processed material

Brinell hardness (HBW)

Cutting speed vc(m/min)

Bit diameter /mm

18.5~20.9

21.0~25.9

26.0~30.9

31.0~41.9

42.0~56.0

Feed rate f (mm/r)

Easy cut steel and carbon steel

180~275

100

200

300

0.08~0.15

0.09~0.16

0.10~0.18

0.09~0.15

0.10~018

0.11~0.18

0.09~0.16

0.09~0.25

0.10~0.25

0.09-0.17

0.09~0.30

0.10~0.32

0.10~0.20

0.10~0.30

0.10~0.32

Carbon steel (quenched)

220~450

100

200

300

0.09~0.14

0.10~0.16

0.11~0.17

0.09~0.14

0.10-0.16

0.11-0.17

0.08~0.14

0.09~0.17

0.10~0.18

0.08~0.14

0.10-0.20

0.10~0.22

0.10-0.20

0.10-0.28

0.10-0.32

Low alloy steel (quenched)

220~450

100

200

300

0.09-0.15

0.11~0.12

0.11~0.19

0.10~0.17

0.12~0.20

0.12~0.20

0.09~0.17

0.10~0.24

0.11~0.25

0.09-0.20

0.10~0.20

0.13~0.27

0.11~0.22

0.11~0.26

0.12~0.30

Stainless steel austenitic stainless steel (annealed)

150~275150~250

100

200

300

0.12~0.17

0.12~0.20

0.12~0.22

0.12~0.18

0.13~0.22

0.12~0.23

0.10~0.20

0.10~0.25

0.11~0.26

0.09~0.25

0.12~0.30

0.12~0.31

0.10~0.20

0.10~0.30

0.12~0.32

High alloy steel, quenched tool steel

>360

100

200

0.08~0.14

0.09~0.16

0.08~0.14

0.09~0.16

0.09~0.16

0.10-0.20

0.09~0.17

0.10~0.20

0.09~0.18

0.10-0.20

Low tensile strength of grey cast iron

≤230

100

200

300

0.07-0.25

0.07~0.30

0.07-0.30

0.07-0.25

0.07~0.30

0.07~0.30

0.07-0.30

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.40

0.07~0.40

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.40

0.07~0.40

High tensile strength of grey cast iron

230

100

200

0.07~0.25

0.07~0.30

0.07~0.30

0.07-0.30

0.07~0.30

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.40

0.07~0.35

0.07~0.40

(2) Typical product introduction

1. Indexable blade bit

(1) Product introduction.

ZTD02/03/04/05 series shallow hole drills are indexable blade drills (see Fig. 5-4).

They are mainly used for hole processing with a length diameter ratio of less than 5 times.

They are widely used in the field of hole processing in various industries such as engines, molds, wind power components, etc.

The blade has PM and EM2 groove shapes (see Fig. 5-5 and Fig. 5-6).

The PM groove edge has good strength and is suitable for drilling of steel, cast iron and other materials;

EM groove edge is sharp, with high strength and better impact resistance.

The blade meets the requirements for processing viscous materials and is suitable for processing viscous materials such as austenitic stainless steel.

In the drilling process, the speed of the inner edge is low, the working condition is bad, and the toughness of the blade is required to be high.

It is recommended to select YBG212 brand blade with good comprehensive performance for the inner edge and YBG205 brand blade with good wear resistance for the outer edge.

Fig. 5-4 indexable blade bit

Fig. 5-5 groove shape of inner edge blade YBG212 SPGT*-PM

Fig. 5-6 groove shape of external blade YBG205 SPGT*-EM

The new surface treated drill body greatly improves the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the drill bit.

Its high torsional resistance can withstand higher feed rate and effectively improve the processing efficiency;

The wider chip removal space and the good spiral flushing angle make the chip removal more smooth;

The spiral hole is formed by heating and twisting process, with small core thickness, better strength of the tool body, chip holding groove along the fibrosis flow direction of the tool, strong chip discharge capacity, less chip extrusion, and larger range of Machinable hole depth;

Good blade installation angle, small vibration in cutting process, high blade repeated positioning accuracy, better drilling accuracy and surface quality.

(2) Product features

1) High efficiency: spiral internal cooling structure expands chip holding space, allows greater feeding and improves efficiency.

2) High precision: the blade installation precision is high, the cutting process is stable, the vibration is small, and the hole processing precision is high.

(3) Application examples

1) Machining workpiece: rotary support drilling.

2) Workpiece material: 50Mn.

3) Machine tool: Shenyang Machine Tool CNC drilling machine.

4) Blade: ZCC SPGT07T308-PM.

5) Cutting parameters: vc=120m/min, vf=160mm/min, drilling depth L=90mm.

6) Processing effect: the service life and stability of the blade are improved to meet the processing requirements.

The surface roughness value is small, the tool runout is 0.07mm, and the machining hole deviation is 0.1mm, meeting the requirements.

2. S Drill

(1) Product introduction.

S Drill (see Fig. 5-7) adopts cutting force balance design to optimize the designed high-strength cutter body;

Special surface treatment, with anti-corrosion, wear resistance, smooth surface, smooth chip removal and beautiful appearance;

Patented chip holding groove shape ensures excellent chip breaking, chip guiding and chip removal performance.

Fig. 5-7 Sentai inger S Drill

(2) Application examples

1) Equipment: double axis drilling machine.

2) Material: stainless steel.

3) Parts: large flanges.

4) Tool: S drill bit, ISS39.2S-3D.

5) Competitor U-drill.

6) Cutting parameters: n=1730r/min, vf=261mm/min, d=39.2mm, hole depth L=90mm.

7) Service life: the single edge life of competitor u drill is 18.9m, and that of s drill is 20m.

3. Indexable drill bit PD series (Ouxi machine)

(1) Product introduction.

The dimensions of the Phoenix indexable bit (see Fig. 5-8) PD series of occidental have been expanded.

This comprehensive product series can be applied to a wider range of processing conditions.

Today, the Phoenix indexable drill bit series includes the following four sizes – 2D, 3D, 4D and 5D, and its design enables it to process large-size apertures stably and efficiently.

Fig. 5-8 Phoenix indexable bit

This series has three types of blades, which can be used to process a wide range of materials, including steel, stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum and non-ferrous metals.

All turning tools are of 4-angle economic design, which enables them to be used not only as drill bits on lathes, but also as boring tools for inner and outer circles.

In addition, the blade can also be used for each specification of the tool body, which is conducive to simplifying the management of the tool.

The characteristics of each blade are shown in table 5-3.

Table 5-3 three kinds of blades of Phoenix indexable bit PD series

appearanceBlade namecharacteristic
 DM type for Steel & stainless steel1. blade shape with both sharpness and high strength 2. Excellent performance when processing steel and stainless steel
 Dr type for cast iron1. excellent edge strength shape 2 When cast iron is processed, it can exert excellent performance
DN type for aluminum alloy & Nonferrous Alloy DN type for aluminum alloy & Nonferrous Alloy1. Sharp cutting edge and polishing treatment, excellent chip removal .2. Excellent performance of aluminum alloy and non-ferrous alloy during processing.

(2) Product features

1) High precision can be ensured when drilling.

The reason why it can achieve high precision machining is that it can eliminate common problems in deep hole machining, such as chip blockage, chip bending and winding, and tool damage.

2) Its special groove design can ensure the high rigidity and excellent chip removal of the cutting tool, and even the difficult 5D deep hole can be handled stably.

3) When the tool cuts into the material, the chip breaking groove of the blade can cut small sections.

4) The blade adopts the economical four corner style, and it is more convenient to use the same blade for the center and peripheral edges of the blade body.

5) The blade installation mode with the best dynamic balance can realize the processing under high feed conditions.

(3) Application examples

1) Tool used: P5D.

2) Processing material: S50C.

3) Tool diameter: φ 25mm。

4) Hole depth: L=125mm.

5) Machine tool: horizontal machining center.

6) Cutting fluid: water soluble cutting fluid.

7) Cutting conditions: vc=150m/min, f=0.12mm/r.

4. Tungsix-drill shallow hole drill

(1) Product introduction.

The tungsix-drill indexable bit (see Fig. 5-9) adopts an innovative double-sided six point blade design, which provides extremely high economic advantages.

The optimized cutting balance improves the rigidity of the drill body, enhances the stability and extends the tool life.

The newly developed ah9030 and ah6030 materials are suitable for efficient processing of steel, stainless steel, cast iron and difficult to machine materials.

Fig. 5-9 tungsix-drill shallow hole drill

(2) Product features

1) Double sided six point blade has extremely high economic advantages.

2) The outer edge and the center edge share the same type of blade.

3) The optimized geometry of the outer edge and the center edge.

4) The cutting force is reduced by the geometry of the positive angle blade.

5) The unique tool holder design can effectively prevent the wrong installation of the blade.

6) The blunt back angle design of the central blade tip enhances the strength and fracture resistance of the blade.

7) The twisted spiral cooling hole design increases the cross-sectional area of the chip removal groove and increases the cutting fluid flow.

8) Bit diameter φ 20~ φ 54mm.

(3) Application examples

1) Workpiece Name: train wheel.

2) Workpiece material: C58.

3) Application: drill through holes.

4) Machine tool: horizontal machining center.

5) Cutting fluid: water soluble cutting (internal cooling).

6) Cutter head: TDS245F25-3.

7) Blade: WWMU060306R-DJ AH9030.

8) Cutting parameters: vc=208m/min, f=0.09mm/r, hole depth L=40mm.

9) Cutting effect: each TDS blade has 6 cutting edges, which is 1.5 times the number of cutting edges of the original shallow hole drill, and the service life of the single edge tool is increased by 1.8 times.

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