How To Select Cermet Materials And Cutting Tools?

Cermet is a heterogeneous composite material composed of metal or alloy and one or several ceramic phases, in which the latter accounts for about 15% ~ 85% (volume).

At the same time, the solubility between metal and ceramic phases is quite small at the preparation temperature.

The TiC (N) – based cemented carbide of cermet (TiC (TiN) – WC + Ni (Mo) + Mo2C) used for manufacturing cutting tools is a cemented carbide material with TiC (ceramic) as the matrix (sometimes other carbides and nitrides are added) and Ni, Mo or Co (metal) as the binder (usually containing 10% ~ 20% of the binder).

1. Classification and characteristics of cermet cutting tool materials

TiC (N) based cemented carbide has high hardness (90 ~ 94HRA), which almost reaches the level of ceramics, so it is also called “cermet” (see Fig. 2-17).

In particular, the bonding temperature between TiC (N) and steel is high, so the resistance to crater wear is very good.

Its biggest advantage is that the affinity between its material and the processed material is very low, so it is not easy to produce knife sticking and chip accumulation, so that the processed surface is very smooth and flat.

Its tool life is several times longer than that of WC based cemented carbide.

However, the bending strength and toughness are worse than WC based cemented carbide, and the plastic deformation resistance and edge collapse resistance are poor.

Therefore, it is mainly used for high-speed finishing or semi finishing of carbon steel, stainless steel and nodular cast iron, which is not suitable for heavy cutting and intermittent cutting.

By adding WC, TaC, TiN, TaN and other carbides, the flexural strength and toughness can reach the level of WC based cemented carbide.

The characteristics of cermets are summarized as follows:

(1) Low density, higher hardness and thermal hardness than WC based cemented carbide.

(2) Strong wear resistance and crescent pit wear resistance.

(3) Good chemical stability and oxidation resistance.

(4) The affinity with the workpiece material is small, the friction coefficient to the steel is small, and it is not easy to stick the knife and accumulate chips.

(5) The coefficient of thermal expansion is higher than that of WC based cemented carbide.

cermet blade

Fig. 2-17 cermet blade

Cermet is a kind of tool material suitable for finish machining, which can ensure better dimensional accuracy and surface roughness.

Cermets are mainly used in the processing of long chip materials such as steel materials.

At present, they have been used to process materials such as cast iron and stainless steel.

The key point of using cermet tools is to select the appropriate blade shape, tip radius and groove shape (the optimal combination of material and geometry).

In order to obtain the best productivity and safety, the feed rate should be increased as much as possible and the back cutting depth should be minimized as much as possible.

2. Brand, performance and application of cermet materials

(1) Brand and application of domestic cermet materials

1. Zhuzhou Diamond

The properties and applications of some cermets of Zhuzhou Diamond are shown in table 2-20.

Table 2-20 properties and applications of some cermets of Zhuzhou Diamond

GradePerformance and Application  
YNO1High wear resistance, good oxidation resistance, allowing high cutting speed.It is suitable for finishing of alloy steels such as carbon steel, chromium, manganese and silicon steel.
YN05Good hardness and heat resistance, wear resistance close to ceramics, good thermal stability, excellent oxidation resistance and poor impact resistance.It is suitable for high-speed finishing of alloy steel, quenched steel, cast iron and alloy cast iron.
YN10It has good wear resistance and heat resistance, the hardness is equivalent to P01, and the strength is higher than P01. It is suitable for continuous finishing of carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, quenched steel and other materials.
YN15Good wear resistance, high strength and toughness.It is suitable for finishing and semi finishing of general steel. 
TNO5It is suitable for high-speed finishing of carbon steel, cast steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, tool steel and hardened steel.
TN10It is suitable for finishing of carbon structural steel, medium carbon quenched and tempered steel, high-strength steel, stainless steel and heat-resistant alloy steel. It can also be used for finishing and semi finishing of hardened steel with hardness less than 55HRC.Especially for high-strength steel and stainless steel, the semi finishing effect is the best.
TN10.1Universal turning brand, suitable for continuous cutting of all kinds of cast steel, alloy steel, stainless steel and high strength steel.
TN10.2Universal milling brand, suitable for continuous cutting of all kinds of cast copper, alloy steel, stainless steel and high strength steel.
TN20It is suitable for semi finishing of alloy steel, stainless steel and high strength steel.Under certain conditions, it can be used for finishing and semi finishing of nodular cast iron and gray cast iron.
TN30It is suitable for high-speed finish milling of alloy steel, stainless steel, high-strength steel and nodular cast iron. It can also be used for turning of this kind of materials.

(2) Foreign brand of cermet cutting tools

The brand of foreign cermet cutting tools is shown in Appendix B.

Appendix B brand of foreign cermet cutting tools

ISOsecoSandvik cromanKenner metalIskaMitsubishisumitomoTungaloyKyoceraTegukHitachiChloeDaijieJapanese special ceramicsIngersollWidiaWalterSenra Tianshi
  P01 CT5015KT315KT1120 AP25NVP25NT110AT1500AT2000ZT250A TN30PV30TN6010PV7010PV3010PV3030CT3000MZ1000CH550 LN10Q15C7ZIN0560   
  P10TP1030TP1020C15MCT5015KT315KT5020IC20NIC520NIC30NAP25NVP25NNX55NX2525T2000ZT3000ZT1500AT250.AGT720TN60TN6010TN6020PV7010PV7020PV3010PV3030CT3000MZ1000CH350CH550CN1000LN10CX50PX75CZT157IN0560IN60CTT115TT125WCE10TCC410TCM1OTCM407
  P20TP1030TP1020C15MCT5015KT530MKT605MKT5020IC530NAP25NVP25NVP45NNX2525NX3025T2000ZT3000ZT1500AT250AGT730NS730TN90TN6020PV7020TN1OOMPV3010CT3000CT5000CZ25CH550CZ1025CH7030MZ1000M72000CN2000CN20CX50CX75PX75CX90SC30PX90CZT157IN60CTT125WCE10TCM1O
  P30  KT5020 VP45NNX4545T3000Z  CT5000CZ25CH570CH7035MZ3000 CX75PX75PX90SC30N40C7XIN60C   
  M10TP1030TP1020 KT315KT5020IC520NIC30NAP25NVP25NNX2525T250AT1500A TN60TN6020PV7020PV3010CT3000PV3030MZ1000CH550 LN10CX75PX75C7ZIN0560  TCC410TCM10TCM407
  M20C15M KT530MKT605MKT5020IC530NNX2525AP25NVP25NT250AT1500A TN90TN6020PV7020TN1OOMPV3010CT3000PV3030CT5000MZ1000CZ25CH7030  CX75PX75PX90SC30C7X    
  M30  KT5020 NX4545   CT5000CZ25CH7035MZ3000  PX90SC30     
  K01 CT5005KT315KT5020IS8AP25NVP25NT110A TN30PV30PV7005PV3010PV3030CT3000CZ25MZ1000CH550 LN1O    TCC410
  K10  KT315KT5020 AP25NVP25NNX2525T110A TN60TN6010PV7005PV7010PV3030CT3000CZ25MZ1000MZ2000CH550 LN10CX75    TCC410TCM10TCM407
  K20  KT530MKT5020IS80AP25NVP25NNX2525   CT5000CZ25MZ2000MZ3000CH7030      TCM407

(3) Typical product introduction

Tp1020 and TP1030 are the latest cermet blades of shangao (see Fig. 2-18).

Among them, TP1020 is a high wear-resistant cermet material grade with the best predictable surface roughness.

It is preferred for steel and stainless steel processing.

TP1030 is a high wear-resistant cermet material grade of coating, which is mainly applicable to the processing of steel parts and stainless steel with high requirements for surface roughness and productivity.

Fig. 2-18 shangao cermet blade

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